Transcript of Elder Christofferson Speech in India: The Good That Religion Does

Transcript of Elder Christofferson Speech in India: The Good That Religion Does

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“The Good That Religion Does”

Elder D. Todd Christofferson

of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles

World Peace Centre

Pune, India

August 14, 2017

Introduction

Good morning and thank you to Mr. Michael Nobel, former chairman of the Nobel Charitable Trust; members of the World Peace Prize Committee; and to Dr. Vishwanath D. Karad, executive president of the MIT World Peace University, and his family. Greetings and felicitations as well to the governing council of the World Peace Prize, dignitaries on the dais, and dignitaries and honored guests in the audience, my friends.

On behalf of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, its leadership, and the nearly 16 million Church members across the globe, I warmly thank you for honoring us with this year’s Philosopher Saint Shri Dnyaneshwara World Peace Prize.

Our Church is grateful to be part of India’s rich diversity of faith traditions. The first Latter-day Saints came to India in the 1850s, and we have had an official presence here since 1981. That same year, the Book of Mormon was translated into Telugu, and the following year it was also published in Hindi and Tamil. Today the Church has 43 congregations in India, comprising more than 13,000 members.

So it is with profound respect for India and her people that I have chosen a topic that connects religious belief with our common efforts toward peace. I have entitled my remarks “The Good That Religion Does.”

When we think of the good that religion does, our first thoughts turn to the deeply personal effect that faith has in our own lives and in the lives of our families and friends. Religion defines and sustains us. For billions of believers, it is who we are and how we live.

But religion also benefits nations and communities. Government officials and policy makers, like yourselves, who seek to establish lasting peace and prosperity for people of all faiths should understand why and how. Failing to appreciate the good religion does society or the nation as a whole and to accommodate religion whenever possible results in social conflict.

In the next few minutes, I would like to note a few of the ways religion does good. As we examine this subject with an eye toward our common objective of peace, I will do my best to draw on experiences applicable across religious, political, and cultural boundaries. Some of what I say is based on research here in India. Some is based on international research conducted in multiple countries. And some is based on research conducted in the United States. Whatever the differences among countries and circumstances, similar patterns and trends exist. I hope what I say will aid productive dialogue about the tremendous benefits religion provides nations, societies, and individuals.

I will first address how religion enriches the entire nation. Second, I will discuss how religion enriches local communities. Third, I will describe how religion enriches the lives of families and individuals. And fourth, I will close by explaining why policy makers must be mindful of the great good religion does when defining and protecting religious freedom.

Religion Enriches the Entire Nation

First, religion enriches the entire nation. When I say “enriches,” I use the term in the literal sense of increasing wealth. Religion has a significant effect on national prosperity. Studies show that religion fosters trust—a necessary ingredient for social cohesion and economic growth.[i] Trust affects a nation’s economic performance across the board, as a leading economist at the World Bank explained: “At the micro level, social ties and interpersonal trust can reduce transaction costs, enforce contracts, and facilitate credit at the level of individual investors. At the macro level, social cohesion underlying trust may strengthen democratic governance, improve the efficiency and honesty of public administration, and improve the quality of economic policies.”[ii]

In a similar vein, Italian social scientists have identified a direct link between religious belief and trust: “We find that on average religion is associated positively with attitudes that are conducive to free markets and better institutions. Religious people trust others more, trust the government and the legal system more, are less willing to break the law, and are more likely to believe that the markets’ outcomes are fair.”[iii]

Trust is an essential element of any well-functioning economy, and scholars have found that religion is especially effective at instilling trust and that religious people are far more trusting than people with purely secular viewpoints.[iv] Noted sociologists Robert Putnam and David Campbell offer this explanation: “Perhaps because they spend time with trustworthy people, or perhaps because their faith encourages them to look on the brighter side of things, religious people themselves are more trusting of just about everybody than are secular people.”[v]

Religion Enriches Local Communities

Second, religion enriches local communities.

Religious people and institutions are a powerful source of humanitarian assistance. Where they are free to worship and to exercise their faith, religious people give volunteer community service at much higher rates than those without religion. By one estimate, people of faith are 40 percent more likely than nonreligious people to give money to charities and more than twice as likely to volunteer their service to community organizations.[vi] Highly religious people are more likely to volunteer not only for religious causes but also for secular ones.[vii] And religious people are three times more likely than the secular to contribute to charities and to volunteer each month.[viii] One scholar has written that “positive relations of church membership and/or the frequency of church attendance with both secular and religious philanthropy appear in almost any article in which this relation was studied.”[ix]

India is similar in these respects. More than 7 out of 10 people in India reported that their charitable giving was directly linked to their religious beliefs.[x]

This willingness of religious believers to give and to serve arises from the sense of compassion that religion teaches us to have for our neighbors—especially those who are poor or otherwise in need. Research shows that religious people tend to be more likely than their secular counterparts to have feelings of concern and compassion for others in need. A prominent social scientist explained that “if two people are demographically identical in all important ways except that one is religious and the other is secular, the religious person is 13 percentage points more likely than the secular person to say he is concerned about the less fortunate.”[xi]

Inspired by such compassion, religious volunteers provide vital services for the most vulnerable: food for the hungry, shelter for the homeless, schools for the uneducated, and medical care for the sick. More than 90% of those who attend weekly worship services donate to charity, and nearly 70% of them volunteer for charitable causes.[xii] Such generosity happens at both the institutional and individual levels.

At the institutional level, humanitarian services provided by religious volunteers lift people and improve whole communities. And because these welfare services are generally provided without charge, they reduce financial burdens on government. Religious volunteers provide substantial assistance in areas that would otherwise fall to governmental agencies. Life-changing aid includes refugee assistance, child and foster care services, job training and other employment-related services, counseling and mental health support, literacy and mentoring programs, crime and substance abuse prevention, legal representation, assistance to victims and families of criminal offenders, and services for the homeless.[xiii]

A study conducted in Philadelphia—a major American city—illustrates how religious volunteers serve vulnerable communities. In Philadelphia, 91% of religious congregations operated at least one community program that supplied goods and services to those in need. This occurred “regardless of size and ethnic composition” of the religious body.[xiv] The studies also found that when religious congregations work as social service providers, “the most commonly served groups were children and youth, the elderly, people who are homeless, and people who are poor.”[xv] The estimated replacement value of those services in that city alone was $250 million,[xvi] and the estimated value of religious social services across America is as much as $20 billion, serving more than 70 million individuals in need.[xvii] Here in India, recent studies indicate that volunteers account for 85% of the nonprofit social service workforce in India, with Indian charitable donations exceeding 42 billion U.S. dollars annually.[xviii]

In addition to the coordinated service rendered by religious organizations, individual religious believers give service on their own. Religious people are nearly 20% more likely than secular individuals to give money or food to a homeless person, and almost twice as likely to give blood. More often than their secular counterparts, religious people carry out small acts of civility and integrity, such as voluntarily returning extra change received from a cashier.[xix]

Taken together, these acts of voluntary service by religious believers and religious institutions lift and strengthen communities.

Religion Enriches the Lives of Families and Individuals

Third, religion enriches the lives of families and individuals.

Marriages are more stable and families more self-sufficient because of the influence of religion. Numerous international studies have shown that valuing and regularly practicing religion is “associated with greater marital stability, higher levels of marital satisfaction, and an increased likelihood that an individual will be inclined to marry.”[xx] In fact, sociological studies and literature reviews going back over half a century indicate that religious attendance is the single most important predictor of marital stability.[xxi]

Of course there are differences in marital stability rates among various faith traditions in India.[xxii] But research has shown that couples who acknowledge a divine purpose in their marriage are more likely to collaborate, to have greater marital adjustment, and to perceive more benefits from marriage.[xxiii] They are also less likely to use aggression or to come to a stalemate in their disagreements,[xxiv] and the rates of domestic violence among religious couples are lower than those of secular couples.[xxv]

When husbands attend religious services more frequently, their wives report greater happiness with the level of affection and understanding in their relationship and with the amount of time their husbands spent with them.[xxvi] Among couples whose marriages lasted 30 years or more, a significant number reported that their faith was a source of moral guidance in times of conflict, that their faith helped them to deal with relationship difficulties, and that their faith encouraged them to maintain their commitment to their marriages.[xxvii] By sharp contrast, married couples who stopped religious activity divorced 2.5 times more frequently than those who continued to attend religious services.[xxviii]

Children are safer and thrive better in families led by a religious mother and father whose faith inspires them to make personal sacrifices for the strength and happiness of their marriage and children. Children raised in religious homes are less likely to experience anxiety, loneliness, low self-esteem, and sadness.[xxix] Simply put, children are happier when mother and father are religious. Religious practice correlates with reduced rates of youth depression[xxx] and suicide,[xxxi] while a lack of religious affiliation bears a tragic correlation with a higher risk of youth suicide.[xxxii] A strong family coupled with regular religious practice is the most effective defense against the pernicious evils of pornography,[xxxiii] drug and alcohol abuse,[xxxiv] and other addictive behaviors.[xxxv] And adolescents who regularly participate in religious services are significantly less likely to engage in delinquent or illegal behavior.[xxxvi]

Parents who attend religious services are more likely to enjoy strong, healthy relationships with their children,[xxxvii] and the greater a child’s religious involvement, the greater their emotional closeness to their parents will be.[xxxviii] Religious activity also increases the odds that a child will share similar values with his or her parents.[xxxix]

The influence of religious parents doesn’t end at home. Parents who attend religious services are more likely to be involved with their children’s education.[xl] The greater a parent’s religious involvement, the more likely they are to have high educational expectations for their children and the more likely they are to regularly communicate with their children regarding school.[xli] Children of religious parents are more likely to pursue advanced courses, spend time doing homework, make friends with academically oriented peers, avoid skipping classes, and complete university degrees.[xlii]

Religious fathers tend to be more involved with their children, to monitor their children’s activities, to praise and hug them, and to spend time with them one-on-one.[xliii] Religious fathers are also more likely to have dinner with their families and to volunteer for youth-related activities.[xliv] In fact, a father’s frequency of religious attendance was a stronger predictor of paternal involvement in one-on-one activities with children than employment and income![xlv]

Given all of this, it should come as no surprise that studies across a wide diversity of ages, races, and denominations show that religious activity leads to greater individual and family happiness, life satisfaction, morale, positive affect, or some other measure of well-being.[xlvi] Religion enriches family life.

And generally speaking, religion inspires individuals to become better people—to develop the traits of honesty, self-discipline, and caring for others that we associate with good character. Such moral discipline and the inculcation of moral values occurs primarily in the home and within a religious community, but the benefits of such moral training ultimately reach all of society.

Professional research bears this out. A study of high-school students found that character “strengths of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, love, and care” increased as the students lived out their religious beliefs more intently.[xlvii]

As religion inspires individuals to develop praiseworthy character traits, such people become more engaged and responsible citizens and more effective contributors to the welfare of their own communities and even the nation. Religiously involved individuals are less likely than others to carry or use weapons, fight, or commit violence.[xlviii] Communities with more religious populations tend to have fewer homicides and suicides,[xlix] and religious attendance is associated with direct decreases in rates of both minor and major crimes that are unrivalled by the effect of any secular or government welfare program.[l]

Not only are the religious more likely to be law-abiding, they are more likely to be active, engaged, contributing members of the community. Studies show that religious citizens are more likely than nonreligious citizens to belong to community organizations, serve as an officer or committee member of an organization, and take part in local civic and political life by attending town meetings, voting in local elections, and pressing for social and political reform.[li] Leading scholars have declared that “religiosity is, by far, the strongest and most consistent predictor of a wide range of measures of civic involvement.”[lii]

Happy marriages; healthy, successful children; strong moral character; safe communities; and active, engaged citizens. These are further proof of the good that religion does.

Religious Freedom

All these benefits bless the lives of individuals, families, communities, and the nation. But they can occur only in societies that recognize and honor religious freedom. Long experience teaches that repressing religious belief and practice diminishes the power of religion to deliver the unique goods I have described.

Religious freedom is not merely a token legal gesture of equality-in-name-only. It is a substantive freedom to believe and act according to one’s sincerely held beliefs. Wherever we look in the world, we see that religious freedom not only protects religious people and institutions. It also acts as a catalyst in protecting the whole range of human rights. Freedom of speech, for instance, embraces the right to speak about God. But it also embraces the freedom to speak about one’s opinions and beliefs in matters of politics, art, literature, history, morality, or virtually any other topic. The support that religious freedom gives other fundamental rights was noted long ago by the English historian Lord Acton, who taught that “religious liberty is the generating principle of civil [liberty], and that civil liberty is the necessary condition of religious [liberty].”[liii]

Research has shown that protecting religious freedom promotes societal harmony. This happens because religious freedom facilitates other types of freedom that have significant correlations with positive social and economic outcomes “ranging from better health care to higher incomes for women.”[liv] Hard experience powerfully establishes, by contrast, that abridging religious freedom leads to conflict. Studies have shown that societal restrictions on religion increase intra-state conflict,[lv] religiously motivated violence,[lvi] political corruption,[lvii] and overall levels of strife and national unrest.[lviii] Indeed, studies show that government restrictions on religious freedom are the strongest predictor of religious violence and conflict, even when other factors are eliminated.[lix]

Countries with strong traditions of religious freedom tend to be not only more stable and safe, but more prosperous. A recent study reached the remarkable conclusion that the presence of religious freedom in a country is one of only three factors significantly associated with global economic growth.[lx] Consider what a difference that principle could make! Imagine what changes would happen if more officials and policymakers recognized that protecting religious freedom is one of the three most significant things they could do to promote the economic growth and well-being of their country.

Looking at national prosperity alone, religion delivers such beneficial results because religious freedom generates peace and stability.[lxi] Where society is stable there are opportunities to invest and conduct predictable business operations.[lxii] Ten out of 12 of the World Economic Forum’s pillars of national competitiveness were stronger in countries with low government restrictions on religious freedom.[lxiii] These include better primary education and health, better technical training and higher education, greater technological readiness, greater innovation, stronger communications and transport infrastructure, greater market efficiency, higher business sophistication, greater financial market development, stronger institutional environments promoting wealth, and greater labor market efficiency.[lxiv]

India is a country of exceptional cultural and religious diversity, yet with few exceptions, its people demonstrate tolerance and live harmoniously. This is an example to the world. The Christian community, for example, although a minority, generally enjoys safety and space to develop and to make its contributions to Indian society. And so with other faiths present in India.

Demonstrable results like these should make religious freedom a public policy priority. Proposals to diminish religious freedom risk losing the great national, social, and individual benefits I have described and generating destructive conflicts. Serious impediments to religious freedom will carry untold costs by denying religion the capacity to do good for everyone. That will only impoverish all of us. It was Mahatma Gandhi who wrote, “The golden rule of conduct, therefore, is mutual toleration, seeing that we will never all think alike and we shall see Truth in fragment and from different angles of vision.”[lxv] Mutual toleration and respect for diverse religious beliefs is the best way forward.

In speaking of the extensive benefits of religion, I would be most ungrateful if I did not acknowledge the blessings from faith in my own life. That faith in God and the Lord Jesus Christ began with the teachings of my dear parents, and it has sustained me ever since. A witness of the literal Resurrection of Jesus Christ makes all the difference in how I live each day and the deep accountability I feel to God for my actions and choices. And surely it gives me hope for the future. I can go forward with confidence and a life devoted to serving, knowing God will sustain and guide me by His Holy Spirit. I am confident that many of you experience those same blessings of religious faith.

Conclusion

My friends, peace is our common aim—peace between countries, peace within communities, and peace, ultimately, for each of us. Recognizing and protecting faith is the path to peace. True religion offers a stable foundation for a just and healthy society. It strengthens and ennobles nations, communities, and individuals. It is my hope that we will all recognize and appreciate the great good religion does and work together—as people of diverse faiths or no faith at all—to build more peaceful nations and ultimately a more peaceful world.

Thank you.

 

[i] See, for example, Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales, “People’s Opium? Religion and Economic Attitudes,” Journal of Monetary Economics, vol. 50 (2003), 225; Robert D. Putnam and David E. Campbell, American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us (2012), 460–61.

[ii] Stephen Knack, Trust, Associational Life and Economic Performance, HRDC-OECD International Symposium on the Contribution of Investment in Human and Social Capital to Sustained Economic Growth and Well-Being, http://www.oecd.org/innovation/research/1825662.pdf.

[iii] Guiso, Sapienza, and Zingales, “People’s Opium?” 227.

[iv] See Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, 460–61.

[v] Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, 460–61.

[vi] See Arthur C. Brooks, “Compassion, Religion, and Politics,” The Public Interest, Sept. 22, 2004, 57, 59.

[vii] See See Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, chapter 13.

[viii] See Brooks, “Compassion, Religion, and Politics,” 61.

[ix] Pamala Wiepking, “Who Gives? A Literature Review of Predictors of Charitable Giving,” http://pamala.nl/papers/BekkersWiepking_VSR_2011.pdf.

[x] See Terrie Maple and Richard Harrison, “India Giving: Insights into the Nature of Giving across India,” 5, http://www.issuelab.org/resource/india_giving_insights_into_the_nature_of_giving_across_india.

[xi] Brooks, “Compassion, Religion, and Politics,” 59–60.

[xii] See Arthur C. Brooks, “Religious Faith and Charitable Giving,” Policy Review, Oct. 2003, http://www.hoover.org/research/religious-faith-and-charitable-giving; see also Putnam and Campbell, American Grace.

[xiii] See 81 Fed. Reg. 64 (April 4, 2016).

[xiv] Ram A. Cnaan, Jill W. Sinha, and Charlene McGrew, “Congregations as Social Service Providers: Services, Capacity, Culture, and Organizational Behavior,” Administration in Social Work, vol. 28 (2004), 47.

[xv] Ram A. Cnaan, Jill W. Sinha, and Charlene McGrew, “Congregations as Social Service Providers,” 47.

[xvi] See Patrick F. Fagan, “Why Religion Matters Even More: The Impact of Religious Practice on Social Stability,” Backgrounder, Dec. 18, 2006, 1, 13 (citing Ram A. Cnann, “The Philadelphia Story: Preliminary Findings from the Philadelphia Census,” Hartford Institute for Religious Research, http://www.hirr.hartsem.edu/cong/research_phillycensus.html, and Ram A. Cnaan and Stephanie C. Boddie, “Philadelphia Census of Congregations and Their Involvement in Social Service Delivery,” Social Service Review, vol. 75 [2001], 559); see also Canaan, Sinha, and McGrew, “Congregations as Social Service Providers.”

[xvii] See Fagan, “Why Religion Matters Even More,” 18.

[xviii] See Mathieu Cantegreil, Dweep Chanana, and Ruth Kattumuri, Revealing Indian Philanthropy (2013), 22–23.

[xix] See Brooks, “Compassion, Religion, and Politics,” 62.

[xx] Fagan, “Why Religion Matters Even More,” 2.

[xxi] See David B. Larson, Susan S. Larson, and John Gartner, “Families, Relationships and Health,” Behavior and Medicine (1990), 135.

[xxii] See P. Dommaraju, “Divorce and Separation in India,” Population and Development Review, vol. 42 (2004), 195.

[xxiii] See Andrew J. Weaver, Judith A. Samford, Virginia J. Morgan, David B. Larson, Harold G. Koenig, and Kevin J. Flannelly, “A Systematic Review of Research on Religion in Six Primary Marriage and Family Journals: 1995–1999,” American Journal of Family Therapy (2002), 293.

[xxiv] See Weaver, Samford, Morgan, Larson, Koenig, and Flannelly, “A Systematic Review of Research on Religion in Six Primary Marriage and Family Journals: 1995–1999,” 293.

[xxv] See Christopher G. Ellison and Kristin L. Anderson, “Religious Involvement and Domestic Violence Among U.S. Couples,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, vol. 40 (2001), 269.

[xxvi] See W. Bradford Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, New Men: How Christianity Shapes Fathers and Husbands (2004), 186.

[xxvii] See Linda C. Robinson, “Marital Strengths in Enduring Marriages,” Family Relations, vol. 42 (1993), 38.

[xxviii] See Timothy T. Clydesdale, “Family Behaviors among Early U.S. Baby Boomers: Exploring the Effects of Religion and Income Change, 1965–1982,” Social Forces, vol. 76 (1997), 605.

[xxix] See Byron R. Johnson, Ralph Brett Tompkins, and Derek Webb, “Objective Hope—Assessing the Effectiveness of Faith-Based Organizations: A Systematic Review of the Literature,” Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Center for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society (2002), http://www.manhattaninstitute.org/pdf/crrucs_objective_hope.pdf.

[xxx] See Loyd S. Wright, Christopher J. Frost, and Stephen J. Wisecarver, “Church Attendance, Meaningfulness of Religion, and Depressive Symptomatology Among Adolescents,” Journal of Youth & Adolescence, vol. 22 (1993), 559.

[xxxi] See Johnson, Tompkins, and Webb, “Objective Hope—Assessing the Effectiveness of Faith-Based Organizations.”

[xxxii] See Frank Tovato, “Domestic/Religious Individualism and Youth Suicide in Canada,” Family Perspectives, vol. 24 (1990), 69.

[xxxiii] See Nicholas Zill, “Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,” Mapping America (2009), 48, http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-48-quality-of-parent-child-relationship-religiousattendance-and-family-structure; see also Mapping America publications on U.S. patterns of viewing X-rated movies (Mapping America, 37–39) and adultery (Mapping America, 73–75), http://www.mappingamericaproject.org.

[xxxiv] See Marvin D. Free Jr., “Religiosity, Religious Conservatism, Bonds to School, and Juvenile Delinquency Among Three Categories of Drug Users,” Deviant Behavior, vol. 15 (1994), 151.

[xxxv] See William J. Strawbridge, Sarah J. Shema, Richard D. Cohen, and George A. Kaplan, “Religious Attendance Increases Survival by Improving and Maintaining Good Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Social Relationships,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 23 (2001), 68; Johnson, Tompkins, and Webb, “Objective Hope—Assessing the Effectiveness of Faith-Based Organizations.”

[xxxvi] See Byron R. Johnson, David B. Larson, Spencer De Li, and Sung Joon Jang, “Escaping from the Crime of Inner Cities: Church Attendance and Religious Salience Among Disadvantaged Youth,” Justice Quarterly, vol. 17 (June 2000), 377. (Disadvantaged black youths in the inner city who attend religious services regularly are 57 percent less likely to deal drugs and 39 percent less likely to commit crime generally.)

[xxxvii] See Lisa D. Pearce and William G. Axinn, “The Impact of Family Religious Life on the Quality of Mother–Child Relations,” American Sociological Review, vol. 63 (Dec. 1998), 810.

[xxxviii] See William S. Aquilino, “Two Views of One Relationship: Comparing Parents’ and Young Adult Children’s Reports of the Quality of Intergenerational Relations,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 61 (Nov. 1999), 858.

[xxxix] See William S. Aquilino, “Two Views of One Relationship,” 858.

[xl] See W. Bradford Wilcox, “Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 64 (Aug. 2002), 708.

[xli] See Chandra Muller and Christopher G. Ellison, “Religious Involvement, Social Capital, and Adolescents’ Academic Progress: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988,” Sociological Focus, vol. 34 (May 2001), 155.

[xlii] See Muller and Ellison, “Religious Involvement, Social Capital, and Adolescents’ Academic Progress,” 155.

[xliii] See Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, New Men, 112–18.

[xliv] See Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, New Men, 112–18.

[xlv] See Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, New Men, 112–18.

[xlvi] See Johnson, Larson, De Li, and Jang, “Escaping from the Crime of Inner Cities,” 377.

[xlvii] C. A. Markstrom, “Religious Involvement and Adolescent Psychosocial Development,” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 22 (Apr. 1999), 205.

[xlviii] See David Lester, “Religiosity and Personal Violence: A Regional Analysis of Suicide and Homicide Rates,” Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 127 (Dec. 1987), 685, 686.

[xlix] See David Lester, “Religiosity and Personal Violence,” 685, 686.

[l] See Johnson, Larson, De Li, and Jang, “Escaping from the Crime of Inner Cities,” 377.

[li] See Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, 454–55; see also Pippa Norris, “Does Praying Together Mean Staying Together? Religion and Civic Engagement in Europe and the United States,” in Religion and Civil Society in Europe (2013), 285 (demonstrating a similar positive correlation between religious observance and civic engagement in Western Europe).

[lii] Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, 454–55.

[liii] Selected Writings of Lord Acton, ed. J. Rufus Fears (1985), 47.

[liv] Guiso, Sapienza, and Zingales, “People’s Opium?” 227.

[lv] See Roger Finke, “Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview,” Sociology of Religion, vol. 74 (2013), 1.

[lvi] See Roger Finke and Jaime Dean Harris, “Wars and Rumors of Wars: Explaining Religiously Motivated Violence,” in Religion, Politics, Society, and the State (2011), 53.

[lvii] See Seymour Martin Lipset and Gabriel Salman Lenz, “Corruption, Culture, and Markets,” in Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (2000), 112.

[lviii] See Brian J. Grim, Vegard Skirbekk, and Jesus C. Cuaresma, “Deregulation and Demographic Change: A Key to Understanding Whether Religious Plurality Leads to Strife,” Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, vol. 9 (2013), article 13, 1.

[lix] See Grim, Skirbekk, and Cuaresma, “Deregulation and Demographic Change,” 1; see also notes 9 and 10.

[lx] See Brian J. Grim, Greg Clark, and Robert Edward Snyder, “Is Religious Freedom Good for Business? A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis,” Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, vol. 10 (2014), article 4, 1.

[lxi] See Grim, Clark, and Snyder, “Is Religious Freedom Good for Business?” 1; see also Finke and Harris, “Wars and Rumors of Wars,” 53.

[lxii] See Grim, Clark, and Snyder, “Is Religious Freedom Good for Business?” 4.

[lxiii] See Grim, Clark, and Snyder, “Is Religious Freedom Good for Business?” 8.

[lxiv] See Grim, Clark, and Snyder, “Is Religious Freedom Good for Business?” 9.

[lxv] Mohandas Gandhi, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (1998), 36:389, 344.

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